OBJECTIVE: To perform an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of health policy and health promotion strategies to reduce the tobacco demand in adolescents, youth and young adults.
METHODS: Reviewers independently performed an electronic database search, reviewed titles and abstracts, assessed articles' eligibility for inclusion and quality, and extracted relevant data. Only systematic reviews and meta-analyses reporting data on tobacco policies and interventions focusing on individuals aged <25 years were included. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control was used to guide data synthesis.
RESULTS: 13 articles were included. Studies were of mixed quality with five studies ranked as critically low and seven as high quality. Overall, mixed results were found on the effectiveness for tobacco policies and interventions. Strategies such as increasing taxes on tobacco products were most promising.
CONCLUSION: Though data on a variety of measures to reduce smoking is available, conclusions concerning the effectiveness are inconclusive. Tobacco policies and interventions have the potential to reduce smoking, but conclusions are hampered due to both lack of high-quality trials and numerous biases in primary studies. Further high-quality research is required to examine the effectiveness of interventions and policies to reduce the tobacco demand in adolescents, youth and young adults.
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