The prevalence of gaming disorder is assumed to be between 2%-5%. The treatment effect of different therapeutic interventions of gaming disorder has not been studied extensively. This systematic review and metaanalysis sought to identify all intervention studies on gaming disorder with a control group, determine the effect of the interventions, and examine moderators. Studies applying a therapeutic intervention and using an appropriate comparison group were identified by searching electronic databases, previous reviews, and reference lists. Data on type of treatment, name of outcome measurement, symptom level and other study characteristics were extracted and analyzed using meta-analysis and meta-regression. A total of 38 studies and 76 effect sizes, originating from 9524 participants were included. RoB2 and ROBINS-I risk of bias tools were used to assess within-study risk of bias. Correlational hierarchical models with robust variance estimation were fitted to effect size data and yielded a moderate summary estimate. Egger's sandwich test, funnel plot inspections, and other tests were conducted to assess risk of bias between studies. Results indicate that there may be an overall effect of therapeutic interventions for gaming disorder, but confidence in these findings is compromised by small-study effects, possible publication bias, a limited study pool, and a lack of standardization. The field needs more higher quality studies before the evidence-base can support reliable meta-analytic estimates.
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