Possible beneficial effects of neurofeedback in improving ADHD functional outcomes have been increasingly reported. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the relationship between neurofeedback and executive functioning in children with ADHD.
PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases were searched to identify studies reporting the effects of neurofeedback on executive functioning, including response inhibition, sustained attention, and working memory, assessed by neuropsychological tests. Only randomized controlled studies of children aged 5 to 18 years were included using a random-effects model.
Ten studies were included. The effects of neurofeedback were not found on three domains of executive functions. A meta-regression analysis revealed a trend of numbers of neurofeedback sessions positively associated with response inhibition (p = .06).
Results did not show the benefits of neurofeedback on executive functions assessed by neuropsychological tests. Future studies should focus on standard neurofeedback protocols, the intensity of intervention, and neuropsychological outcomes.
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