Multiple psychosocial interventions to treat ADHD symptoms have been developed and empirically tested. However, no clear recommendations exist regarding the utilization of these interventions for treating core ADHD symptoms across different populations. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis by the CADDRA Guidelines work Group was to generate such recommendations, using recent evidence. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) and meta-analyses (MA) from 2010 to 13 February 2020 were searched in PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, EBM Reviews and CINAHL. Studies of populations with significant levels of comorbidities were excluded. Thirty-one studies were included in the qualitative synthesis (22 RCT, 9 MA) and 24 studies (19 RCT, 5 MA) were included in the quantitative synthesis. Using three-level meta-analyses to pool results of multiple observations from each RCT, as well as four-level meta-analyses to pool results from multiples outcomes and multiple studies of each MA, we generated recommendations using the GRADE approach for: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy; Physical Exercise and Mind-Body intervention; Caregiver intervention; School-based and Executive intervention; and other interventions for core ADHD symptoms across Preschooler, Child, Adolescent and Adult populations. The evidence supports a recommendation for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for adults and Caregiver intervention for Children, but not for preschoolers. There were not enough data to provide recommendations for the other types of psychosocial interventions. Our results are in line with previous meta-analytic assessments; however, they provide a more in-depth assessment of the effect of psychosocial intervention on core ADHD symptoms.
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