Prodromal symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have been detected within the first year of life. This review evaluated evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of parent-mediated interventions for infants under 24 months who are at risk for ASD. Electronic databases, including grey literature, were searched up till November 2019. Seven RCTs were identified. There was substantial heterogeneity in recruitment, outcome measures and effect size calculations. Interventions did not reduce the risk of later ASD diagnosis and post-intervention effects on infant outcomes were inconsistent, with five studies reporting significant improvements across both treatment and control groups. Moderate level of evidence of intervention effects on parental interaction skills and the small number of RCTs, and significant limitations restrict generalizability across studies.
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