: Behavioral parent training is an evidence-based intervention for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but it is unknown which of its components are most effective. This meta-regression analysis investigated which specific behavioral techniques that parents learn in parent training are associated with effects on parental outcomes.
: A search was performed for randomized controlled trials on parent training for children with ADHD, with positive parenting, negative parenting, parenting sense of competence, parent-child relationship quality, and parental mental health as outcome measures. After screening 23,026 publications, 29 studies contributing 138 effect sizes were included (N = 2,345). For each study, the dosage of 39 behavioral techniques was derived from intervention manuals, and meta-regression determined which techniques were related to outcomes.
: Parent training had robust small- to medium-sized positive effects on all parental outcomes relative to control conditions, both for unblinded and probably blinded measures. A higher dosage of techniques focusing on the manipulation of antecedents of behavior was associated with better outcomes on parenting sense of competence and parental mental health, and a higher dosage of techniques focusing on reinforcement of desired behaviors was related to larger decreases in negative parenting. Higher dosages of psychoeducation were negatively related to parental outcomes.
: Although techniques were not investigated in isolation, the results suggested that manipulation of antecedents of behavior and reinforcement techniques are key components of parent training for children with ADHD in relation to parental outcomes. These exploratory findings may help to strengthen and tailor parent training interventions for children with ADHD.
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