Mindfulness-based programs are a promising intervention modality for reducing disruptive behavior, and Soles of the Feet (SOF) is one program that teaches internal awareness of personal events (e.g., unpleasant emotions) and a self-regulation strategy to decrease disruptive behaviors. This study conducted a meta-analysis of single-case research design (SCRD) studies that implemented SOF to decrease disruptive behaviors. Existing SOF studies were evaluated using high-quality SCRD standards, resulting in 15 studies included in the analysis (49 participants; mean age 23.12 years (SD = 15.87); highly heterogeneous backgrounds). Studies were analyzed to calculate effect sizes using Tau-U, an innovative non-parametric statistical approach for estimating effect sizes in SCRD studies. The aggregated weighted Tau-U effect size of SOF across all studies was -0.87. Moderator analyses indicated SOF's effectiveness was robust across participant characteristics and delivery formats. This meta-analysis suggests that SOF is a moderately effective evidence-based practice for reducing disruptive behavior.
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