Iodine supplementation during pregnancy in areas with mild-moderate deficiency is still a matter of debate. The present study aimed at systematically reviewing currently available evidences provided by meta-analyses with the aim to further clarify controversial aspects regarding the need of iodine supplementation in pregnancy as well as to provide guidance on clinical decision-making, even in areas with mild-moderate deficiency. Medline, Embase and Cochrane search from 1969 to 2022 were performed. For the purpose of this review, only studies containing meta-analytic data were selected. A total of 7 meta-analyses were retrieved. Four meta-analyses evaluated the relationship between iodine status during pregnancy and neonatal and maternal outcomes suggesting the existence of a U-shaped correlation between iodine status and several maternal and neonatal consequences, especially if iodine status is evaluated at the beginning of pregnancy. Three meta-analyses evaluating the results of intervention trials failed to provide straightforward conclusions on the benefits of iodine supplementation in pregnant women in areas with mild-moderate iodine deficiency. Although evidence coming from meta-analyses suggests a role of iodine status during pregnancy in determining maternal and child outcomes, results of meta-analyses of intervention trials are still controversial. Several factors including, degree of iodine deficiency, and pooling studies conducted in areas with different iodine intake, may account for the lack of benefits reported by meta-analyses of intervention trials. More high-quality, randomized, controlled trials including information on timing, dose and regimen of iodine supplementation are needed to further elucidate this issue.
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