Gut dysbiosis is associated with sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants, which can adversely affect long-term growth and neurodevelopment. We aimed to synthesise evidence for the effect of probiotic supplementation on growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants. MEDLINE, EMBASE, EMCARE, Cochrane CENTRAL, and grey literature were searched in February 2022. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Meta-analysis was performed using random effects model. Effect sizes were expressed as standardized mean difference (SMD), mean difference (MD) or risk ratio (RR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Risk of Bias (ROB) was assessed using the ROB-2 tool. Certainty of Evidence (CoE) was summarized using GRADE guidelines. Thirty RCTs (n = 4817) were included. Meta-analysis showed that probiotic supplementation was associated with better short-term weight gain [SMD 0.24 (95%CI 0.04, 0.44); 22 RCTs (n = 3721); p = 0.02; I<sup>2</sup> = 88%; CoE: low]. However, length [SMD 0.12 (95%CI -0.13, 0.36); 7 RCTs, (n = 899); p = 0.35; I<sup>2</sup> = 69%; CoE: low] and head circumference [SMD 0.09 (95%CI -0.15, 0.34); 8 RCTs (n = 1132); p = 0.46; I<sup>2</sup> = 76%; CoE: low] were similar between the probiotic and placebo groups. Probiotic supplementation had no effect on neurodevelopmental impairment [RR 0.91 (95%CI 0.76, 1.08); 5 RCTs (n = 1556); p = 0.27; I<sup>2</sup> = 0%; CoE: low]. Probiotic supplementation was associated with better short-term weight gain, but did not affect length, head circumference, long-term growth, and neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants. Adequately powered RCTs are needed in this area. Prospero Registration: CRD42020064992.
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