The objective of this study was to review English and Chinese randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the effects of family-centred care (FCC) interventions on preterm infants' and parental outcomes in the neonatal intensive care units and to conduct a meta-analysis.
REVIEW METHOD USED:
Systematic review and meta-analysis.
Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, BNI, and AMED and the Chinese databases CNKI and Wanfang Data were searched in April 2017 and updated in August 2018.
Only RCTs were included. Participants were preterm infants <=37 weeks gestational age and parents. Interventions were related to FCC, and outcome measures were infant and parent clinical outcomes. Included studies were assessed for risk of bias using Cochrane Manual 5.1.0. Meta-analyses used mean differences (MDs), standardised mean differences (SMDs), or odds ratio (OR), followed by 95% confidence interval (CI). Heterogeneity was tested with Cochran's Q chi-squared test, tau-squared test, and inconsistency index (I<sup>2</sup>).
Nineteen studies (10 from English and 9 from Chinese databases) were included; meta-analysis included 15 studies (7 English and 8 Chinese RCTs). Meta-analysis showed significant improvements in weight gain (7 studies: MD, 4.57; 95% CI, 2.80-6.34; P < 0.001; I<sup>2</sup> 94%); readmission (3 studies: OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.10-0.52; P < 0.001; I<sup>2</sup> = 0%); parent satisfaction (5 studies: OR, 11.20; 95% CI, 4.76-26.34; p < 0.001; I<sup>2</sup> = 0%); skills of parents (4 studies: SMD, 2.57; 95% CI, 2.19-2.96; P < 0.001; I<sup>2</sup> = 53%); knowledge of parents (4 studies: SMD, 2.74; 95% CI, 2.47-3.00; P < 0.001; I<sup>2</sup> = 0%); parental anxiety at follow-up (3 studies: SMD, -0.19; 95% CI, -0.28 to -0.09; P < 0.001; I<sup>2</sup> = 0%); parent depression at follow-up (2 studies: SMD, 0.37; 95% CI, -0.63 to -0.12; P = 0.004; I<sup>2</sup> = 44%); and parental stress (3 studies: MD, -0.20; 95% CI, -0.26 to -0.13; P < 0.001; I<sup>2</sup> = 0%). No statistical differences were observed in neurobehavioural development (3 studies) and hospital length of stay (7 studies).
FCC interventions can improve weight gain and readmission in preterm infants as well as parent satisfaction, knowledge, and skills, and possibly long-term anxiety, depression, and stress. Developing standardised outcome sets for testing family-centred care interventions is recommended.
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