Effect of forest therapy on depression and anxiety: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Effect of forest therapy on depression and anxiety: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Yeon, P. S. Jeon, J. Y. Jung, M. S. Min, G. M. Kim, G. Y. Han, K. M. Shin, M. J. Jo, S. H. Kim, J. G. Shin, W. S.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
18(23) (no pagination)
This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to summarize the effects of forest therapy on depression and anxiety using data obtained from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasiexperimental studies. We searched SCOPUS, PubMed, MEDLINE(EBSCO), Web of science, Embase, Korean Studies Information Service System, Research Information Sharing Service, and DBpia to identify relevant studies published from January 1990 to December 2020 and identified 20 relevant studies for the synthesis. The methodological quality of eligible primary studies was assessed by ROB 2.0 and ROBINS-I. Most primary studies were conducted in the Republic of Korea except for one study in Poland. Overall, forest therapy significantly improved depression (Hedges's g = 1.133; 95% confidence interval (CI): -1.491 to -0.775) and anxiety (Hedges's g = 1.715; 95% CI: -2.519 to -0.912). The quality assessment resulted in five RCTs that raised potential concerns in three and high risk in two. Fifteen quasi-experimental studies raised high for nine quasi-experimental studies and moderate for six studies. In conclusion, forest therapy is preventive management and nonpharmacologic treatment to improve depression and anxiety. However, the included studies lacked methodological rigor and required more comprehensive geographic application. Future research needs to determine optimal forest characteristics and systematic activities that can maximize the improvement of depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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Tidlig innsats

Behandling og hjelpetiltak


Psykiske vansker og lidelser

Følelsesmessige problemer

Depresjon og nedstemthet (inkl. både vansker og lidelse)


Angst og engstelighet (inkl. både vansker og lidelse)


Psykososiale hjelpetiltak

Avspenningstiltak (sykehusklovn, avspenning knyttet til medisinske prosedyrer)


Tiltak i nærmiljøet/infrastruktur (ungdomsklubber, frivillig arbeid, etterskoletilbud, veier, parker)


Sped- og småbarn (0-2 år)

Barn i førskolealder (3-5 år)

Barn i skolealder (6-12 år)

Ungdom (13-18 år)

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