A systematic review and meta-analysis conducted to evaluate the combined effect of distraction intervention for needle-related pain in order to provide the basis for developing an effective nursing intervention for children.
We searched three electronic databases, PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL, for original articles published in the period from 1 January 2011 to 31 July 2019. In addition, a manual search was performed on the basis of references in the literature and the references of the articles in pursuit of comprehensive data until 10 December 2019.
Meta-analysis was performed by the synthesis of the effect size, homogeneity, heterogeneity, and trim-and-fill method using MIX 2.0 Pro. Well-planned RCTs, single-center studies, high-quality studies, participants older than 10 years of age, and visual and clown distraction interventions were effective for needle-related pain and distress management among children.
The results showed evidence supporting the effect of distraction interventions for children's needle-related pain and distress. Through this review, strategies were identified to design better interventions to improve the outcomes.
Copyright © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
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