This meta-analysis synthesizes studies of brief interventions (BIs) that targeted alcohol consumption and reported both alcohol and tobacco outcomes. It examines whether BIs reduce alcohol and tobacco use for adolescents and young adults among interventions that (1) directly targeted tobacco and alcohol use, or (2) did not target tobacco use but measured it as a secondary outcome.
Multiple databases and grey literature sources were searched (1980-2012) resulting in the identification of 18 randomized or controlled quasi-experimental studies (5949 participants).
Analyses were conducted using random effects inverse-variance weighted three-level models. BIs were associated with a significant reduction in alcohol consumption relative to control groups [g = 0.11, 95 % CI (0.04, 0.17)] but not with a significant decrease in tobacco use [g = 0.07, 95 % CI (-0.01, 0.16)].
Directly addressing tobacco was not a significant moderator affecting tobacco use outcomes. Post-hoc exploratory analysis revealed potential questions to address with future research.
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