Bivirkninger av andregenerasjons antipsykotika hos barn og unge

Adverse effects of second-generation antipsychotics in children and adolescents: a Bayesian meta-analysis

Forfattere
Cohen, D. Bonnot, O. Bodeau, N. Consoli, A. Laurent, C.
Årstall
2012
Tidsskrift
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Volum
32
Sider
309-16
In adults, second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have a low frequency of extrapyramidal syndrome (EPS) and a moderate frequency of metabolic adverse effects. Here we aimed to assess short-term adverse effects of SGAs in children and adolescents. We searched for relevant studies in MEDLINE and EMBASE (1996-2010), Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency clinical trial registries, and reference lists of review articles. We found 41 were short-term (3-12 weeks) controlled studies that evaluated SGA adverse effects in youths. Using Bayesian meta-analysis, we analyzed odds ratios (ORs) or mean average effects. Numbers of arms (subjects) in the 41 trials were aripiprazole, 10 (n = 671); olanzapine, 14 (n = 413); quetiapine, 10 (n = 446); risperidone, 25 (n = 1040); ziprasidone, 4 (n = 228); clozapine, 5 (n = 79); and placebo/untreated, 23 (n = 1138), totaling 93 arms (4015 patients). Clozapine was assessed only for weight gain and somnolence. Compared with placebo, significant treatment-related increases were observed for weight gain with olanzapine (mean +/- SD = 3.99 +/- 0.42 kg; 95% credible interval, 3.17-4.84 kg), clozapine (2.38 +/- 1.13 kg; 95% credible interval, 0.19-4.62 kg), risperidone (2.02 +/- 0.32 kg; 95% credible interval, 1.39-2.66 kg), quetiapine (1.74 +/- 0.38 kg; 95% credible interval, 0.99-2.5 kg), and aripiprazole (0.89 +/- 0.32 kg; 95% credible interval, 0.26-1.51 kg); glucose levels with risperidone (3.7 +/- 1.36 mg/dL; 95% credible interval, 1.08-6.42 mg/dL) and olanzapine (2.09 +/- 1.08 mg/dL; 95% credible interval, 0.13-4.32 mg/dL); cholesterol levels with quetiapine (10.77 +/- 2.14 mg/dL; 95% credible interval, 6.6-14.95 mg/dL) and olanzapine (4.46 +/- 1.65 mg/dL; 95% credible interval, 1.24-7.73 mg/dL); triglyceride levels with olanzapine (20.18 +/- 5.26 mg/dL; 95% credible interval, 9.85-30.53 mg/dL) and quetiapine (19.5 +/- 3.92 mg/dL; 95% credible interval, 11.84-27.17 mg/dL); hyperprolactinemia with risperidone (OR, 38.63; 95% credible interval, 8.62-125.6), olanzapine (OR, 15.6; 95% credible interval, 4.39-41.1), and ziprasidone (OR, 9.35; 95% credible interval, 1.24-37.03); and EPS with ziprasidone (OR, 20.56; 95% credible interval, 3.53-68.94), olanzapine (OR, 6.36; 95% credible interval, 2.43-13.84), aripiprazole (OR, 3.79; 95% credible interval, 2.17-6.17), and risperidone (OR, 3.71; 95% credible interval, 2.18-6.02). All SGAs increased the risk of somnolence/sedation. We conclude that short-term metabolic effects and EPS are frequent in children treated with SGAs. Second-generation antipsychotics have distinct profiles of secondary effects, which should be considered in making treatment decisions.

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Tiltaksnivå

Behandling og hjelpetiltak

Tema

Biologiske risikofaktorer, sykdommer og symptomer

Bivirkninger av psykofarmaka

Tiltak

Medikamentell behandling

Antipsykotisk medisin

Aldersgruppe

Barn i skolealder (6-12 år)

Ungdom (13-18 år)

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